Viking Camera Stamp Layer

The Viking Camera Stamp Layer will display stamps for all images acquired by the Visible Imaging Subsystem (VIS) onboard the Viking 1 & 2 orbiters. While the search interface is similar to the THEMIS Stamp Layer, there are some differences that allow users to search for images based on the unique parameters associated with Viking VIS images.


Open the Viking Camera Stamp Layer

  1. Open the Stamp Layer: Chose "Add New Layer" -> "Imagery" -> "Viking" OR Chose "Add New Layer" -> "Instrument" -> "Viking" .




  1. Search Parameter Categories: The search parameters are divided into categories since there are so many of them. Clicking on the down arrow on the right side of the category name will reveal all the search parameters in that category. The categories are:
    • Basic Parameters
    • Advanced Parameters
    NOTE: A search can be performed with parameters set in multiple categories.
  1. Enter Search Parameters: It is not necessary to enter values for each parameter, but the more specific your search the faster it will be. The allowable values for each field are given in the quick reference table below followed.
  1. Perform Image Search: Clicking OK will make the Stamp Layer perform the search and display the results. Depending on how specific the search parameters are, it may take the Stamp Layer a few minutes to find and create stamps for all of the images. Once the stamps are displayed in the Viewing Window, users can right-click on an outline to either render the image (display the image data in JMARS) or view the image in a web browser.

Viking Search Parameter Glossary

Filter Type

Acceptable Values


Basic Parameters

Image ID(s)

Any Specific Image ID Number(s)

A unique identifier for each image commanded; follows the pattern XXXMYY, where:

  • XXXX is the zero-padded orbit number
  • M is the spacecraft id (Viking Orbiter 1 = A, Viking Orbiter 2 = B)
  • YY is the zero padded, two-digit image number from the specified orbit

Spacecraft Name

Viking 1 - Only images from the Viking 1 orbiter
Viking 2 - Only images from the Viking 2 orbiter
Blank- Any Orbiter

This field identifies which of the two identical Viking orbiters were used to acquire the observations.

Min/Max Longitude

0 to 360(East Longitude = Positive)
Blank(Any Longitude)

This is the approximate longitude on the planet Mars of the image center. All values are based on the IAU 2000 aerocentric model of Mars with east positive longitude.

Min/Max Latitude

90 to -90(North Latitude = Positive)
Blank(Any Latitudes)

This is the approximate latitude on the planet Mars of the image center. All values are based on the IAU 2000 aerocentric model of Mars with north positive latitude.

Min/Max Orbit

1 - 1485(Viking 1)
1 - 706(Viking 2)
Blank(Any Orbit)

Viking spacecraft orbit during which an observation was acquired.
Advanced Parameters

Mission Phase

Continuation Mission
Extended Mission
Pre-Orbital Science
Primary Mission
Survey Mission

The Viking orbiter missions were both divided into the following phases:

  • Pre-Orbital Science Launch - Mars Orbit Insertion
  • Primary Mission Mars Orbit Insertion - November 1976
  • Extended Mission November 1976 - May 1978
  • Continuation Mission May 1978 - July 1979
  • Survey Mision July 1979 - July 1980 (Viking 1 only)


VIS Camera A(Only images from Camera A)
VIS Camera B(Only images from Camera B)
Blank(Any Camera)

The VIS subsystem consisted of two identical cameras: A & B.



Blank (Any Filter)

The VIS cameras took images using the following filters:
  • Blue 0.35µm - 0.53µm
  • Minus-Blue 0.48µm - 0.70µm
  • Violet 0.35µm - 0.47µm
  • Clear 0.35µm - 0.70µm
  • Green 0.50µm - 0.60µm
  • Red 0.55µm - 0.70µm

Min/Max Sample Resolution

0.0070 km - 30.0000 km
Blank(Any Sample Resolution)

The "horizontal" resolution of the image pixels, in km/pixel.

Min/MaxLine Resolution

0.0070 km - 32.5000 km
Blank(Any Line Resolution)

The "vertical" resolution of the image pixels, in km/pixel.

Min/MaxLocal Solar Time

00:00 - 24:00(Given as HH:MM in Mars time)
Blank(Any Local Solar Time)

This is the local time on Mars at the center of the image relative to a division of the Martian day into 24 equal parts. A martian day is slightly longer than 24 hours and 37 minutes, so these times are in "Mars hours, Mars minutes and Mars seconds".

Min/Max Solar Longitude

0 - 360(Northern Vernal Equinox = 0)
Blank(All Solar Longitude)

This is the position of Mars relative to the Sun measured in degrees from the vernal equinox (start of northern Spring). This number is used as a measure of Martian seasons. (Also known as heliocentric longitude and abbreviated Ls.)

  • Northern Spring/Southern Autumn start at 0°
  • Northern Summer/Southern Winter start at 90°
  • Northern Autumn/Southern Spring start at 180°
  • Northern Winter/Southern Summer begin at 270°

Min/Max Phase Angle

0 - 180 (Viking VIS camera and Sun In-Line = 0)
Blank(Any Phase Angle)

This is the angle between the sun, the surface, and the Viking orbiter at the time the picture was obtained.

Min/Max Incidence Angle

0 - 180(Sun Directly Overhead = 0)
Blank(Any Incidence Angle)

Derived for the center of the image, this is the angle between the Sun and a "normal" line drawn perpendicular to the planet's surface at the time the image was acquired. A higher incidence angle means that the sun closer to the horizon.

Min/Max Emission Angle

0 - 180(Viking Directly Overhead = 0)
Blank(Any Emission Angle)

Measured from the center of the image, this is the angle between the Viking orbiter and a "normal" line drawn perpendicular to the planet's surface.

Min/Max North Azimuth Angle

0 - 360(Image Centerline Along Polar Axis = 0)
Blank(Any North Azimuth Angle)

The angle between the right edge of the image and north. (ex: Image Perpendicular to Longitude Lines = 0)

Min/Max Slant Distance

0 - 760,000(Distance (m) from sub-orbiter point to image center)
Blank(Any Slant Distance)

This number is similar to the spacecraft altitude, but also takes into account the emission angle. If the emission angle is 0 then this number is the same as the spacecraft altitude. If the emission angle is much greater than 0, then the "slant distance" to the surface at the center of the image is also greater than the spacecraft altitude.


Any Text
Blank(All Note)

A short description or miscellaneous information about the image.

Stamp Layer Functions

The Viking Camera Stamp Layer's functions are identical to the functions of the Stamp Layer and are explained in detail on the Stamp Layer page.